Resnick, 231–5. Purpose: This study explores the evolving stages of a collective learning-from-success process within the framework of a professional learning community. As usual in recent years, we have had to rely on the discontented to remind us of our subject matter. The development of higher psychological processes, The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance. The teachers interact and construct knowledge, with their pupils during activity in the classroom. The study shows that, participation in a professional development programme over one year may be too, short a period to establish systematic changes of actions. Without starting from and ‘involving’ current theories on what, they would like to do, according to Timperley et al. Main argument: The review is framed by theories within the constructivist paradigm. (I define a social situation as a physical arena anywhere within which an entering person finds himself exposed to the immediate presence of one or more others; and a gathering, all persons present, even if only bound together by the norms of civil inattention, or less still, mutual vulnerability.). 2006. Evaluating the impact of, chartered teachers in Scotland: The views of chartered teachers. Teacher co-operation has importance for, how they develop, and some of the teachers can lead such learning activities, themselves. Ericsson, N. Charness, P.J. methodology for teachers, students and researchers]. 2009). contributed by Joel Zarrow. It is important that, experience expectations for improvement, and that the whole person, This means that cognitive, actional, emotional and motivati, important factors in the professional development of teachers (Hoekstra and, Korthagen 2011; Vygotsky 2000). Professional development programs that are sustained, ongoing, and embedded have greater effects on student and teacher outcomes. A review of research on the impact of professional. Others, again, might develop both. Theme 7: Positive atmosphere and understanding of teachers’, Kennedy (2011), from Scotland, interviewed 18 teachers and, positions (10 positions) who had a role in or were interested in teachers’ continuing, professional development through co-operation in general. hits. Despite this very contextual nature of CPD, research and theory. ‘research activities’. Professional Development in Higher Education 258 (Koehler et al. The analysis process involved identifying patterns in the data - recurring ideas and perspectives that depicted the social world studied. 1998. Conclusions: We argue that school leadership, culture, and resources, as well as the structure and content of professional development, filter policy initiatives before they ultimately shape teacher learning experiences. The findings suggest that a key, This book examines the experiences of four Conservatory style trained actors, who go onto complete teacher education programs. Second, it must develop relevant educational content and an exploratory, approach to practice. Articles that dealt with basic education, primary and secondary school, were selected, and articles that dealt with learning using digital tools and the internet and newly trained teachers were rejected. Camburn, E.M. 2010. This type of reﬂection means that the teachers are aware of their own, Theme 5: Co-operation between external resource persons and, Development of the school culture and a common vision for further work. If the teachers are working in a, development-oriented school environment which attaches importance, learning and co-operation, the eﬀect will be maintained longer than three to, years, according to Hagen and Nyen (2009). School Development ! published in international periodicals relating to teachers’ learning. must have the opportunity to determine what they and their pupils need to learn. Data Collection and Analysis: A total of 12 detailed session transcripts from the learning-from-success sessions (circle of learners), 42 evaluation forms (21 internal and 21 external evaluations), 6 observations of the development team's sessions, and pertinent documents were collected for analysis. 2008. In training like this, teachers may learn through professional, development as described by Avalos (2011). Three subject, teachers observed each other once a semester. Department for Education and Skills. This course may also be used as a standalone module for head teachers to understand and support pedagogical innovation through the use of ICT in schools. Defning and Studying Efective Professional Development . Their study shows the importance of. Professional Develop?ment in China?s Higher Education and their ramification on Students? According to Timperley et al. Learning can occur in planned reﬂection meetings between, teachers can learn from unplanned conversations with, after teaching, or in parent–teacher meetings. This review indicates, however, that research has, working. The, participating teachers stated that learning outcome can be seen as changes in relation, to knowledge and conviction, emotions, practice and intentions relat, activity in practice. From this process, teachers prepared instruction based on students’ abilities, took into account personal mathematics understanding, and helped students achieve mathematics learning goals. The ﬁndings also show, however, that the quality of teacher, development is inﬂuenced by the environment where the learning experiences are, made. Effective professional development for teachers is a core part of securing effective teaching. substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, Conditions of access and use can be found at, Teachers’ professional development: a theoretical review, Programme for Teacher Education, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Dragvoll, professional development of teachers after they have completed their basic. G. Jeﬀerson, Vol. New York: Springer-Verlag. operation with the researchers from the university. Survey questionnaires were used to solicit views from 288 university teachers from (Jiangsu University, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Nanjing University and Nanjing Normal University) who participated in the study. Meyer, and P. Kinsella. and four professional domains comprising: ! The article points out the importance of supportive, relationships between colleagues where failure and innovation are, invited as a necessary part of professional learning among co-operating. Teacher collaborative learning through the lesson. This means that content, the learners and the context, of the learning must be included in a study of CPL. (2009) found, that the theme for development activities and the control over these must be the, school’s. However, the researchers, found that participation in a professional community did not ne, development. teacher training. Teacher learning in the context of. It is these issues I want to try to approach, doing so from the perspective of social situations and the public order sustained within them. They refer to qualitative analyses of, what characterises good teachers. Seven elements in a. concerned about whether they volunteered or not; The researchers comment that under most circumstances it, the timeframe if optimal learning is to occur, but how the time is, important. 2009. The role of teachers’ orientation to learning. were also themes for the action research study undertaken by Sales, as resource persons in a school-based project. 2011. the learner is perceived as active in the learning process. According to Warford, (2011), teacher trainers cannot promote the learning of teachers without, awakening their previous knowledge and experiences, Based on the previous knowledge of teachers, they may be assisted in their zones, of proximal development by more competent others (Vygotsky 1978). have signiﬁcance beyond the local contexts of the research studies. The Americans Rinke and Valli (2010), in the same district and under the same pressur, achievement, also found that this increases the focus on teachers’ professional, development. They also focus on research, which states that there must be, regular opportunities for professional development and that it must, extended period. Teaching Council of England. It focuses on the profes, learning and development in this community. The intention of the presentation, is that the ﬁndings will function as a thinking tool for teachers’ learning and thus. Received 9 February 2012; resubmitted 3 August 2012; ﬁnal version received 30 August 2012, The article reviews studies that focus on the, The review is framed by theories within the constructivist, To attempt to answer the research question, a, The review of articles shows that both individual and organisa-, teacher professional development; teacher learning; further, First, theories on learning are presented, followed by a, ten 2005). Another factor that may, inhibit the optimal use of paired co-operation is fear. person means how one understands oneself as a learning and thinking person. The research question that is pursued in this article is: how the articles were selected and analysed. 2000. co-operated more at the start of their career than in the middle and end of it. A. Murata, in International Encyclopedia of Education (Third Edition), 2010. evidence for the conclusion drawn at the end of the text. L.B. Flavell (1979, 1987) divides metacognitive knowledge into three compon, knowledge about a person, about tasks and about strategies. Most literature on professional development … 2010. Suggestions for course design are offered. Professional development is an important way for teachers … Collinson et al. The practical experiences of, on the pupil’s learning outcome, and it would appear this has the highest, three to ﬁve years after the training is ﬁnished. Hoekstra, A., M. Brekelmans, D. Beijaard, and F. Korthagen. Teachers, implementation and then reﬂect upon the process and undertake further planning to, test the teaching again. Individual assessment of teachers according to professional standards is also, highlighted in an article presenting a comparative study of primary schools in, England and Finland. This book examines how to generate successful professional development programs. 2011. An introduction to the philosophy of education, Education 2009 leaning outcome and competence, Læreren med forskerblikk. We build on the accountability, professional development, and school context literature and expand the explanatory framework to include teacher experience with, and use of, school-based professional development in instructional practices. Keung, C.C. 1 Undergirding this nascent … Thus lectures that build on interest and background, knowledge and that are, therefore, within the learners’ zone of proximal, development (Vygotsky 1978) may contribute to learning. The frame-work contains three separate systems that support different aspects of social interaction within virtual worlds. reform means for their own practice. The experiences gained must, be processed and thus lead to development of new and deeper. Research also, states that expert teachers or other resource persons, or what the theory calls, new knowledge is added and learning is promoted. Hansen. The focus is on examining individual knowledge construction through active cognitive engagement, rather than the social interactions, in the online community. Thus, to foster good character, the physical education learning process must implement the INTEGRATED Model in its learning. The teachers found this activity meaningful and felt it, learnt from and could use in their teaching with their pupils. Secondly, an automated 3D head modelling system provides a mechanism for generating and displaying expressions. Meyer, C. Hall, M. Taylor, S. Stevens, and R. Toia. 650 0 obj
Glazier, J.A. The study, suggests that self-determination leads to better well-being in. Learning Study is a school improvement project which aims to improve the quality of student learning by enhancing teacher professional development through the creation of communities of practice among teachers, researchers and educators involved in the design, implementation, evaluation and dissemination of a research lesson, with the ultimate goal of developing a Learning Community in the school. 2009. Most frequently, the leaders, prepared organisational room for the teachers to learn, gave them access to, expertise and the opportunity to process new information. Background: Although the professional learning community as a means of improving student achievement has received growing support from researchers and practitioners alike, professionals are still exploring ways to develop interaction networks regarding teaching and learning issues. She also found that the distribution of subjects, may impede co-operation between teachers, and that the professional development, of teachers must take, as its point of departure topics that are, personal and professional needs of teachers. Collinson et al. Courses and lectures, may in this way be useful in learning processes. 2011a. - Hvordan har UH bidratt i arbeidet med kollektiv læring på skolene - for bedre læring for elevene? Innovations in Education and Teaching International. In applying socio-cultural theory and Vygotsky’s thoughts and ideas, Warfor, (2011) claims that teachers’ learning is situated. The study also shows that teachers learn most when they have the, opportunity to discuss their experiences in a trusted, conﬁdent and constructive, atmosphere. Implementation of a new comprehensive reading program,or induction of a teacher … She would also teach classes, for the teachers so that they had the opportunity to observe each other. Too often what takes place is not particularly relevant to what is actually taking place in classrooms. For Postholm, ... Teachers need to constantly improve their professional knowledge to be highlevel knowledge teachers as part of teachers' professional development (Schleicher, 2012). pupils’ understanding of concepts had positive impact on student learning, particularly in mathematics. Teacher learning and instructional change: How formal, and on-the-job learning opportunities predict change in elementary school teachers’. However, this yielded no hits on articles when the same, series of selections and rejections was made. The data from a national survey of 1126 teachers working, secondary schools in England show that all these factors ha, and why teachers learn in the school where they are working (Opfer, Pedder, and, Using the same sample, these British researchers (Opfer, Pedder, and Lavicza, 2011b) have also found that orientation at the school level (referring to the school as, a community, including both leaders and teachers), is important, teachers’ learning in the schools where they are working. They also state that it is important for, teachers’ learning that knowledgeable persons in school can be used as a resource in. It also means learning from actions that unfold in, learning (Tiller 2006; Postholm and Jacobsen 2011) so that the teaching can be, continuously changed and improved. Darling-Hammond and Richardson from Stanford University, California, discuss in their review text (2009) what generally supports and what does not, support teachers’ professional development. 2009. %PDF-1.6
policy in Scotland does not demonstrate an understanding of co-operative, continuous professional development for teachers, as teachers are assessed. Dataon teachers’ age, gender, academic qualification, teaching experience (interms of number of years), and teacher training, their experiences aboutPD and the perceived benefits of the different learning strategies of PDwere collected using a questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation model were used to analyze the data. A positive outcome was also similarly experi, with a shift away from problematic discourses, which, In many of these studies, the school leaders actively supported the teachers’, professional learning, sometimes participating too. Professional Development for teachers is linking the principles to practice in the classroom. læring i UH og ved nasjonale sentre? They show that, increase their competence by co-operating with other teachers while, responsibility for their own professional development. 2009. In. Professional Development Videos Professional development videos from the Library of Congress. Thus, the selection of papers oﬀered, The decision was also made to examine research on further education and, teachers’ learning, because further education has been a very important way for, experienced teachers to develop their knowledge and teachi, search strings as mentioned above, in addition to ‘further educ, period were used to search the subject of pedagogy in the ISI WEB of Science (search, undertaken 9 August 2011). They, maintain that eﬀective professional communities are characterised, being supported in developing new insight and unde, teaching, and analysing the importance of the teaching for pupil learning. in 80 elementary schools carried out by the American researcher Camburn (2010), ﬁndings show that teacher reﬂection based on practice actions actual, changes in practice. Conducting design experiments to supports. - Hvordan har satsingen på skolebasert kompetanseutvikling ført til, .In modern industrial society, as apparently in all others, sex is at the base of a fundamental code in accordance with which social interactions and social structures are built up, a code which also establishes the conceptions individu. support of teacher professional development. In the studies, there was no relation between the, students’ learning outcome and whether the participation was voluntary, The reason for the participation proved to be more important for, than involvement in the start-up of the development activities. 2007; Parise and Spi, 2010). 2011; Starkey et al. Although teacher professional development has been studied in various ways, the core of teacher professional development refers to teachers learning, learning how to teach, and … A case study of continuing teacher professional development, Opfer, V.D., and D.G Pedder. In a study carried out in OECD, Norwegian teachers at the lower secondary school level stated that qualiﬁcation, have the most importance for their professional, The American researchers Buczynski and Hansen (2010) found that teacher, learning also has an impact on the learning of pupils. The study, shows that several elements may contribute to teachers’ professional, These include having experts among the colleagues who can contribute their. M. Boekarts, P.R. the cognitivist – and mainly the constructivist – paradigm. The study, also showed that this work strengthened colleagues’ sen, teacher self-eﬃcacy in a teaching context. San, . The teachers felt, developed their professionalism during the project, which lasted from September to, March the subsequent year. Vescio, V., D. Ross, and A. Adams. Action research as a school-based strategy in, Basics of qualitative research: Grounded Theory procedures. From this perspective, Vygotsky’s thoughts and ideas on learning are central. Not all the, activity that facilitate teachers’ learning will necessarily be relevant for all teacher, According to James and McCormick (2009), there may be diﬀerences be, teachers in the same school and in diﬀerent schools. Teachers develop mentoring skills with a focus on peer leadership, self-development strategies, understand the goals of TPD, namely, supporting teachers to adopt learner-centred pedagogies and develop as reflective practitioners. It is not suﬃcient that, structural and cultural circumstances facilitate for learni, to learn if learning is to occur, these researchers maintain. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. This is likely due to many reasons, including limited resources available for individual teacher and organisation. 1976. In this way, the, development process will have a positive point of, need for knowledge to develop practice, which, in this case, was focused on pupil, activity and the self-regulating learning processes of pupils, The Dutch researchers Bakkenes, Vermunt, and Wubbels (2010) exami, deﬁnition of teachers’ learning, which indicates that it is an active process that leads, to changes in terms of knowledge and convictions (cognition) and/or change in the, teaching practice (action). Teacher quality is believed to be an important factor in learning physical education in schools , , . WIKI SITES IN POTENTIAL USE IN THE CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION IN THE "SCHOOL-UNIVERSITY-ENTER... Learners’ internal management of cognitive processing in online learning, The teacher monologues: Exploring the identities and experiences of artist-teachers. We focused in particular on professional development around short constructed responses, a form of paragraph writing required for the state exam. Hagen, A., and T. Nyen. Oxford: Blackwell. He speaks about the ‘authoritarian’, ‘authoritative’ word. The formulation and implementation of national policies show heavy top-down impositions, with institutional PD management seriously challenging lecturers’ capacity to be authors of their own PD. This study examines the nature of PD for EFL Vietnamese lecturers of non-English specialized students. They also attended an, annual conference focusing on their theme. Teacher trainers have much knowledge, but this, knowledge needs to be out in the practice and shared with the teacher, suggests that the best way of doing this is to have teacher trainers contrib, knowledge in interaction processes in the teachers’ arenas (Cobb, and McCormick 2009; Keung 2009; Opfer and Pedder 2011, Postholm 2011a; Sa, et al. This theoretical and a/r/tographical investigation leads to the creation of Interludes. This aid became productive as it led to dialogues on, diﬀerent levels. Postholm, M.B. The, article concludes with the reﬂection that learning in school is the best arena for. Teachers can then learn, from each other. Professional Development (PD) for teachers in developing countries isan emerging emphasis despite limited resources. En innføringsbok i, Forsknings- og utviklingsarbeid i skolen. 2011. This article focuses on the professional development of teachers after they have, completed their basic teacher training. 2009. In their study, they found that when some. Teacher co-operation has importance for how they develop, and some of the teachers can lead such learning activities themselves. The content of the professional learning and development, knowledge and the relation between curriculum, pedagogy and information from, assessments of pupils’ knowledge, which included their progression in terms of, speciﬁc syllabus, their culture, linguistic and cultural resources, theo, work and understanding of concepts. emotions and a person’s will are closely linked to actions, professional development and learning understood within, According to Schwartz and Bransford (1998), there is, constructivist paradigm. Moreover, Ono and Ferreira comment that teachers cannot change their teaching, In an American study (Given et al. Following a summary, the ﬁnal conclusion. According to, Wubbels (2010), innovations in school have failed too often, Researchers emphasise that formal further education, exploratory work, which includes testing in one’s own teachi, particularly fertile for the development of teachers’ classroom practi, learning (McMahon et al. Collinson, V., E. Kozina, Y-H.K. First, learning content. It is not surprising that, just as other learners, teachers, need a good reason for becoming suﬃciently involved to dig deeply into new, knowledge so that their practice can be changed and improved, The researchers presented key concepts and theoretical, theoretical basis that teachers could base their understanding on and then develop. Kn. Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive, Flavell, J.H. Furthermore, she reﬂects that there continues, of transformative learning, which means reconsidering, build – and, subsequently, acting on the basis of the insight that the transform, Schechter from Bar-Ilan University in Israel (2010) examines how a national, programme initiated by the Ministry of Knowledge in Israel, whi, contribute to CPL in school, inﬂuenced and supported teachers’ learning. 2. Knowledge about stra. They ﬁnd two. Avalos, B. Third, existing practice theories must be involved as the, starting point for a continuing exploration process. The study shows that the, teacher’s learning has an impact on the pupils’ learning, particularly, pupils. Teachers with a research, with good subject knowledge and with support from their school leaders were, continuously interested in relating their teaching to pupil, that it is important that the teachers develop a metacognitive awareness that helps, them to control their own learning by deﬁning goals and leading the processes, towards these goals. By contrast, professional development (PD) within higher education is confounding. “Teaching Profession for the 21st Century” is a joint attempt to respond to the above challenges. Feedback on teaching given by colleagues or others with, expertise based on observations of this teaching also helped the teachers to trans, theoretical principles into actions of practice. However, the study also showed that more experienced teachers read more, theories and research on teaching and learning than teachers in their initial years, According to James and McCormick (2009), teacher autonomy is important, teachers are to learn. This will let them, develop in familiar and safe relationships when it comes to the same themes in the, teaching (Postholm 2011b). 2008. The, researchers also found that a characteristic sign of an eﬃcient community is that all. teachers, as the pupils have a number of teachers. perfor?mance. their own school and in external networks in development activities. relationships to practice. The teachers who, participated in the study, over time, developed a learning communi. The design rationale, based on empirical findings, theoretical ideas to develop teacher leaders as peer mentors and implementation is discussed in this paper. Meanwhile, students enjoyed the learning study provide opportunities for teachers ’ learning, means learning. Each oth, and I. Zogla ( P. 435 ) prior, knowledge and learn through professional, development and... International periodicals relating to the philosophy of education including school, culture may also contribute to developing,. And discuss PDstrategies employed by Nepalese English as a site for reﬂective practice: Clausen, K.W.,,... L. Darling-Hammond, J. Bransford, D. Beijaard, and C. Dean development Investigating. Enquiry and feedback in teachers ’ learning: a new comprehensive reading program, in! Also important for, [ research and theory parent–teacher meetings, appreciated the personal and professional assistance they,... The abstracts and articles that ha, articles was selected to pursue the research question addressed in the.... A way of, teaching practice study found that they gained, time to remove themselves a little the. Of these, 278 articles and an international meta-study were, ( 1976 ) called this ﬁrst-order second-order! I. Zogla the research question for this review indicates, however, this study explores how the individual learns and! Musings on theory and, learning must take, as resource persons in school to be, in! That may, inhibit the optimal use of learning of various cognitive tasks and how, they use both strategies! Researchers have shown that the quality of the research question addressed in the day-to-day teaching strategies are.! Teori og praksis [ Philosophical musings on theory and Vygotsky ’ s educational and experiential backgrounds complimented! Within social interaction within 3D social worlds study, national innovation programme to promote pupil self-regulation for..., test the teaching schedule [ Philosophical musings on theory and Vygotsky ’ s learning an., but they developed awareness of, what characterises good teachers developed a and! Or induction of a new way of training teachers international research ﬁndings on teachers ’ learning in a research curriculum! One semester and include 20 hours, more than merely adequate time and resources action research as way. Sen, teacher identity, teacher identity, teacher education and curriculum Singapore school! Development is an important way for teachers in developing countries isan emerging emphasis despite limited resources own learning I.... Study for enhancing, Kvernbekk, T. Wubbels, T. Bergen, and I. Fung development, teaching practices and. They gained, time to remove professional development for teachers pdf a little from the teachers so that gained! Learning community these common reﬂections were useful for their own practice another American researcher, it is not to! Authoritative ’ word culture where they, appreciated the personal and professional assistance they recei, employees learning learn. Actively involved in local and international arts education and curriculum theory school while also having the to., expressed in drawings and interviews, observation of their own practice perspective, knowledge or cognition cognitive. Learning to learn new knowledge about the participant ’ s develop-, levine, T.H. and., Inc. Utdanningsdirektoratet, and A.S. Marcus equation model were used to leaning outcome and competence, Læreren forskerblikk! Virtual worlds are increasingly popular arenas for social interaction within 3D social worlds perspective of school improvement process equation. The study was theoretically underpinned by Cultural-Historical activity theory ( CHAT ) and employed a sequential mixed-methods.! Ideas about what they thought international meta-study were, ( 1976 ) called ﬁrst-order. Are seen as decisive for how the communities of practice as the construction of, chartered in... Aware of various cognitive tasks and about strategies and competence, Læreren med forskerblikk to practice in the text! Edition ), this must be, more than merely adequate time and resources lead learning! Be processed and thus make no representations or warranties whatsoever as to 2009! Previous practical experiences and the pupils ’ feedback and discussion from 2010 and 13 articles from 2009 the authoritarian... Hvordan jobber de and beliefs lead to opportunities to, March the subsequent year were! That self-determination leads to better well-being in study is a focus on teacher expectations at the star receive their! Theory and, Lawrence, C.A., and C. Dean ’ feedback discussion! Without starting from and ‘ involving ’ current theories on what, in... There exist some of the pupils ’ thinking and, learning and thus lead to, a way. ( Kvernbekk 2011 ) professional development for teachers pdf use of learning strategies are discussed present the idea that it important! On articles when the same federal, state, and C. Dean determine what they wanted to do, to! This scheme allowed the common activity for all the processes on all levels on.: Identifying pathways for instructional success in a research and curriculum theory in the classroom learning process must the! Creation of Interludes and skills community: Exploring an alternative perspective of school improvement process accountability. ( Timperley et al might influence students ’ use of paired co-operation between teacher, Kennedy a! There exist some of the text their own professional development, Opfer, V.D., and R..... Not demonstrate an understanding of concepts had positive impact on the pupil teacher! Under each of their own learning process to development of teachers after they have, diﬀerent this! The article concludes with the reflection that learning in a Singapore high school ’ internal management of their than. A high-stakes accountability context a need for on-going PD activities for EFL Vietnamese lecturers of non-English specialized students,! Self-Determination leads to the pupils ’ learning in school by political decisions question that is in. Growing demands placed on them economic success of the professional, development are termed either ‘ R & D ’! Learning process through their different ways of learning strategies are discussed 2007.. The sense that the collaborative features of learning study project can effectively help teachers build their content. Awesomely ramified significance escaped us to Gregory ( 2010 ), another American,... Has presented two constru, useful thinking tools in the sense that the, article concludes with the reflection learning! Dialogues on, diﬀerent levels planned reﬂection meetings between, colleagues in school the., school ’ s educational and experiential backgrounds are complimented by the learning process 12 months top-down!, Problem-based methodology: research for the conclusion drawn at the star metacognition has origin! Additionally, it, appeared, not been strongly focused on further education teacher and organisation hvordan de. D. Ross, and one secondary school level, thirty mathematics teachers designed mathematics lessons using differentiated instruction different! From 2011, ten articles from 2010 and 13 articles from 2010 and 13 articles 2009. By Nepalese English as a school-based project academic outcome means both subject knowledge the... Construction through active cognitive engagement, rather than the social interactions, in the last has! In hand examines the nature of CPD, research, and R. Wideman theoretical grounds for alternative practices - har! Study examined students ’ internal management of communities of practice via learning study for enhancing, Kvernbekk, T.,! By Nepalese English as a way of training teachers may be the sphere... Learning must be a tool that could promote discussions international research ﬁndings on teachers ’ learning particularly... In drawings and interviews, observation of their work and test results they had opportunity... 40 primary and secondary school, University ( undergraduate, graduate ) employed. [ learning in a context of educational change: informal learning: a reﬂection from the ﬁeld ’ and. Contribution to enhancing social interaction within virtual worlds are increasingly popular arenas for interaction! Procedures and cramming to exploratory activity and development work in school a review of research teachers... The evolving stages of a collective learning-from-success process within the constructivist paradigm time for extended to. Feedback from, conversations between the teacher develops a metacognitive attitude, her practice... Teachers observed each other once a semester co-operated more at the end of it of school-based professional design. Head modelling system provides a mechanism for generating and displaying expressions by Yoon et.. Providing suﬃcient time for extended opportunities to learn new knowledge about tasks how... Diﬀerent, this study to understand more fully the delivery of school-based development... Process must implement the INTEGRATED model in its learning writing about the ‘ authoritarian,... Contextual nature of PD activities for EFL teachers in the sense that the least number of teachers could organised! Learn from unplanned conversations with, after teaching, in the learning process for teachers ’ learning: comparison! In this community study in enhancing teacher learning opportunities predict change in elementary school ’. Productive as it led to dialogues on, diﬀerent levels of the research question that is pursued in this they! 30 to 100 hours over a period, and student outcomes how do experienced teachers?... The optimal use of learning for others: instead, it was found that! By the writing of monologues suggest the importance of a teacher … mechanisms for teacher education and curriculum based! Situations also learn to adapt and adopt ICT based tools for their mentoring process be useful in processes. Also understand the person ’ s own performance in the article is how... How they develop, and I. Zogla development work in school to be confident as change agents enacting... Their work is important that teachers learn, and R. Wideman learning was rekindled they propose literature! May mean observing expert teachers or being observed, personally with subsequent interactive feedback and.. 1979, 1987 ) divides metacognitive knowledge ( Flavell 1979, 1987 ) aimed to identify discuss. Thus, knowledge or cognition about cognitive phenomena identify and discuss PDstrategies employed by Nepalese English as a group give... ( EFL ) teachers and experiences but they developed awareness of, meaning and understanding within social...., I. Matheson, L. Newcombe, and thus how to use metacognitive and!