Vertebrae 27 (10 + 17). 8. Important in aquaculture and commonly used in rice-fish farming. Rounded caudal fin. Eggs are typically deposited on a substrate and both parents guard offspring over several weeks, even for some time after the young are free-swimming. 7463). There are four permanent cichlid species occurring on the island of Trinidad, but no cichlids are found on any other islands close to the Venezuelan coast. Commonly sexually dimorphic. Dorsal fin long, continuous or divided; 7-23 spines, 12-36 soft rays. A strong spine in preopercle. Parental care in 3 forms: mouthbrooding, substratebrooding, and substratebrooding of eggs then mouthbrooding of young. The latter include many Crenicichla species and the genera Teleocichla and Retroculus, which are distributed mainly in the Brazilian and Guianan highlands. originates on the subocular shelf; supraneural configuration 0/0/0+2/1+1/, /0+0/0+2/1+1/, or /0+0/2/1+1/; epineurals 10-15; procurrent caudal-fin rays typically 7-10; hypurals 1-2 and 3-4 typically fused in all species (except some juveniles); openings in external wall of pars jugularis 2 to 5; colour of sides with or without longitudinal stripes, the caudal fin either without markings, with a blackish blotch on tips of lobes, or with a longitudinal blackish streak in middle of each lobe (Ref. Scales in lateral lines may be over 100, usually 20-50. 96888). Vomerine teeth present; palatine teeth present in all except Cryptacanthodes aleutensis. Branchiostegal rays 6. 7463). Pelvic fins absent, pelvic girdle present. Pellegrin (1904) revised the family with diagnoses of all genera and species known to him. Perch-like fishes with concave snout profiles. Champsodontidae - (Crocodile toothfishes) Generally near coral reefs. No spines on anal fin. Detached finlets, as many as nine, sometimes found behind dorsal and anal fins. There are four permanent cichlid species occurring on the island of Trinidad, but no cichlids are found on any other islands close to the Venezuelan coast. Suggested new common name for this family in a coming ref. Spines in anal fin 3-15 (generally 3); soft rays 4-15 (a few with 30). Owstoniines are less elongate, only 27-33 vertebrae and 19-26 dorsal-fin soft rays, with dorsal and anal fins not membraneously attached to the caudal fin (Ref. Dorsal fin long, continuous or divided; 7-23 spines, 12-36 soft rays. Three short spines in anal fin; soft rays 13-16. Practically all genera and more than half of the species have been kept in aquaria at some time. The family Cichlidae was first monographed by Heckel (1840), based on the Natterer collection from Brazil (illustrations in Riedl-Dorn, 2000). Only one species occurs in true marine waters Tilapia guineensis (Günther, 1862). Lower jaw jutted. 94100). Nostrils tubular, one pair (posterior absent). Airbreathing through suprabranchial organ. Mostly bottom dwelling species feeding on a mixed diet of algae and benthic invertebrates; some are planktivores, and some are specialized to feed on skin or fins of larger fishes, with mimic as cleaner. Number of species: 26 (Ref. No spines; soft rays 48-65. 58418. Maximum length about 25 cm (relatively small, 2-35 cm TL, Ref. Caudal fin separate or joined to dorsal and anal fins in varying degrees. 50 cm) lutjanoid fishes; eye moderately large, its diameter longer than snout length. Flat nasal organ devoid of lamellae; lateral line running along base of dorsal fin. Symbiosis between a chaenopsid and a stony coral has been reported from the Caribbean. CLOFFSCA: Bathydraconidae - (Antarctic dragonfishes) (2000: 146-229) summarize data for 38 cichlid species from French Guiana and adjacent countries; Greenfield & Thomerson (1997:184-206) cover 19 species from Belize Cheilodactylidae - (Morwongs) Gonochorism. Gill membranes united to isthmus. Dorsal spines 3-17, flexible; 9-119 segmented soft rays. Sexes differ in color and the female is smaller than the male and assumes all or most of the care for the eggs and young. Ammodytidae - (Sand lances) Branchiostegal rays 6. Worldwide. All the larger species are used as food fish, within a traditional artisanal and subsistence fishery, and all local markets in the lowland Amazon and Orinoco drainages offer Cichla, Astronotus, and other available species of sizes over 10 cm (Ferreira et al., 1998, for a market survey at Santarém). Hypopterus (1 sp. 75992). Many species variable in color, often matching their background. Channidae - (Snakeheads) Three spines in anal fin; soft rays 7-19. 58418. Artedidraconidae - (Barbled plunderfishes) Gill rakers very short, less than 15 in number. Parasphenoid absent. Geographical ranges are commonly limited to a single river or even one or a few streams, reflecting both ecological constraints and drainage basin histories. Separate gill membranes. A lateral line is present with about 50scales along its length. Moderately elongate and compressed fishes with small mouths and thick lips. Another early major treatise is by Jardine (1843), based on the Schomburgk collection from Guyana, Brazil and Venezuela (Kullander & Stawikowski, 1997a-b, for identifications). Pelvic axis usually with scaly process. Dorsal and anal fin spines absent. Numerous problems of species discrimination remain. Nostrils tubular, one pair (posterior absent). Some of these taxa are certainly distinct species, but the status of highly localized subspecies from the Yucatán peninsula, which are based on one or very few specimens, remains a subject for revision. Premaxillae not protractile. The depressed head, its flattened ventral surface, combined with the broad pectoral and pelvic fins are hydrodynamically attuned to the swift-flowing currents. 58418. One or two trunk lateral lines of superficial neuromasts, difficult to discern in preserved material. Dorsal fin continuous, with 6-16 spines and 15-30 soft rays. Gill membranes fused. Found in warm and temperate seas from the very shallow waters to depths of at least 900 m; found on sandy or muddy substrates, among weeds and in coral reefs from tide pools and the surf zone (Ref. The oral jaws are generally highly movable and protrusible, and tooth shape varies greatly, although most Neotropical cichlids have simple, subconical, unicuspid teeth, whereas African cichlids commonly have laterally bicuspid or tricuspid oral teeth. Oviparous with pelagic eggs (Ref. Cirrhitidae - (Hawkfishes) Maximum length about 55 cm. Channidae - (Snakeheads) Branchiostegal rays 6. Swim bladder absent. No cirri on nape, may be present elsewhere on head. There is no scientific monograph covering all Neotropical cichlid species, but numerous aquarium books of variable quality, of which Stawikowski & Werner (1998) may be consulted for the most updated compilation of cichlasomine cichlids. Marine, coastal and brackish water. Tribes: Apogonichthyini Snodgrass & Heller 1905, Apogonini Günther 1859, Archamiini Fraser & Mabuchi 2014, Cheilodipterini Bleeker 1856, Glossamiini Fraser & Mabuchi 2014, Gymnapogonini Whitley 1941, Lepidamiini Fraser & Mabuchi 2014, Ostorhinchini Whitley 1959, Pristiapogonini Fraser & Mabuchi 2014, Rhabdamiini Fraser & Mabuchi 2014, Siphamiini Smith 1955, Sphaeramiini Fraser & Mabuchi 2014, Veruluxini Fraser & Mabuchi 2014, Zoramiini Fraser & Mabuchi 2014 (Ref. Vertebrae 24 (11+13). There are four permanent cichlid species occurring on the island of Trinidad, but no cichlids are found on any other islands close to the Venezuelan coast. palatine and vomer teeth lacking or present only on The stomach has an extendible blind pouch (Zihler, 1982) Trunk lateral line represented by widely spaced pit organs (superficial neuromasts). 7463); especially diverse in South African and southern Australian waters (Ref. Maxillary process on dentigerous process of premaxilla absent. 7463); especially diverse in South African and southern Australian waters (Ref. Elongate pelvic fins before pectorals. All these taxa are herein treated as valid for want of any better option. Elongate pelvic fins before pectorals. Caudal rays 15, branched. Scales in lateral line often with three-lobed posterior extensions, except the most anterior scales. Lateral line extending onto caudal fin. Palatines toothless. Vomerine teeth present; palatine teeth present in all except Cryptacanthodes aleutensis. Dorsal fin long, continuous or divided; 7-23 spines, 12-36 soft rays. Anal fin 5-7 soft rays. Caudal fin with 15 branched rays, rounded to emarginate. 7463). Dorsal fin extending over length of body in some; anterior dorsal fin spines unbranched; anal spines lost; 36-54 vertebrae. Distribution: Antarctic. 9848). Spelling follows CoF (Eschmeyer, June 2007: Ref.). Body mostly compressed and moderately elongate except one species Anarrhichthys ocellatus, is extremely elongate and for its shape goes by the common name wolf-eel. Vertebrae 21-23. Mostly bottom dwelling species feeding on a mixed diet of algae and benthic invertebrates; some are planktivores, and some are specialized to feed on skin or fins of larger fishes, with mimic as cleaner. Parental care in 3 forms: mouthbrooding, substratebrooding, and substratebrooding of eggs then mouthbrooding of young. Relatively deep-bodied. Anal fin 21-41 soft rays. Includes only Centropomus with 12 species, (= former Centropominae). Scales extend onto anal and dorsal fins. A knob projecting backward at the articulation of lower jaw. Long anal fin, with one spine and 17-20 soft rays. About 80 cm maximum length, in Boulengerochromis microlepis. Although they are active swimmers, they often pause to pick zooplankton and at cleaning stations, and shelter within the reef at night. Caudal fin rounded, truncate or forked. Some root in sand for invertebrates and fishes. Nest building and guarding done by the male. Anal fin soft rays 4-10. Hypopterus (1 sp. The pelvic and pectoral fins are both paired fins. Distribution: North and South America. Therefore, Coius has been put in synonymy with Anabas and genus and species included in Anabantidae (Kottelat, 2000; CAS_Ref_No 25865). Subfamilies Owstoniinae and Cepolinae. About 1 m maximum length. With a strong hook on the anterior margin of the cleithrum. Lateral line distinct, running high on body and nearly straight to end of dorsal fin, with 75-105 scales. Erythrocytes lacking in most or all species and is thought to be probably compensated for by the cold, well-oxygenated habitat, a large volume of blood circulation and skin respiration. Suggested new common name for this family in a coming ref. Most species live in self-made burrows in muddy or fine-sand areas. 3. Important in aquaculture and commonly used in rice-fish farming. The insertion of the hyomandibula relatively far posterior, well separated from the posterior margin of the orbit. Feed on small crustaceans and fishes. Mouth protrusible. Dorsal fin much higher anteriorly in some species. Family content changed since Ref. Distribution: Antarctic. Pellegrin (1904) revised the family with diagnoses of all genera and species known to him. Pelvic fins broad or elongate. Oceanic. Much of this habitat is difficult to reach that torrentfish are not easily observed and relatively little is known about them. Channidae - (Snakeheads) To about 50 cm maximum length. Champsodontidae - (Crocodile toothfishes) Freshwater species = ISCAAP 13; marine species = ISCAAP 39. Some species are widely introduced. Detached finlets, as many as nine, sometimes found behind dorsal and anal fins. Only one species occurs in true marine waters Tilapia guineensis (Günther, 1862). Anal fin 5-7 soft rays. The latter include many Crenicichla species and the genera Teleocichla and Retroculus, which are distributed mainly in the Brazilian and Guianan highlands. Colorful. Body shape quite variable, mostly moderately deep and compressed. Adults with pelvic fins. On the whole it is not satisfactory to have one-third of the Neotropical cichlid fauna without a generic name, illustrating a real problem with the more formalized procedure of naming species, but it could also signify a safeguarding against doubtful species. It is called a torrentfish for it lives in tumbling white waters usually in large rivers with gravel and boulders and a broad bed. 7463); especially diverse in South African and southern Australian waters (Ref. Apparently spawns in the spring and has a marine larval stage, but the actual spawning site is unknown. Most dwell in abandoned invertebrate tubes and feed on small crustaceans. The depressed head, its flattened ventral surface, combined with the broad pectoral and pelvic fins are hydrodynamically attuned to the swift-flowing currents. Head rough, often with spines. Distribution: Indo-Pacific. Although they are active swimmers, they often pause to pick zooplankton and at cleaning stations, and shelter within the reef at night. The lateral line is usually divided into one anterior upper portion ending below the end of the dorsal-fin base, and a posterior lower portion running along the middle of the caudal peduncle. Maximum length about 55 cm. Cichlids are absent from the Río Marañón above the Pongo de Manseriche and from the Río Ucayali drainage upstream of Atalaya (the mouth of the Río Urubamba [Río Vilcanota] and Río Tombo [Río Apurimac]). Pelvic fin jugular, with 1 spine and 3 soft rays. Lower jaw jutted. Anal fin soft rays 6-8. Nape without cirri. Some with the distal portion of the median-fin spines unossified (Ref. Scales extend onto anal and dorsal fins. On the whole it is not satisfactory to have one-third of the Neotropical cichlid fauna without a generic name, illustrating a real problem with the more formalized procedure of naming species, but it could also signify a safeguarding against doubtful species. Badidae - (Chameleonfishes) Distribution: tropical western and eastern Atlantic, Indian and Pacific (mainly Indo-Pacific). The sagitta features an anterocaudal pseudocolliculum having a long and thick ventral part which is separated from the crista inferior by a long, deep and sharp furrow (Gaemers, 1985). A formal classification down to tribe is provided by Kullander (1988). Head rough, often with spines. are placed in a new family, Latidae (= former Centropomidae: Latinae) (Ref. Kullander (1998) estimated that there are about ten undescribed North-Central American cichlid taxa and about 160 undescribed South American taxa. The presence of an expanded head of each fourth epibranchial bone (Stiassny, 1981); Maximum length about 15 cm. Dorsal fin long, continuous or divided; 7-23 spines, 12-36 soft rays. Much of Pellegrin’s efforts with the Neotropical taxa were improved upon by Regan’s series of generic revisions in the next two years (Regan, 1905-1906), which remained the platform for all Neotropical cichlid systematics until the 1980s. About 80 cm maximum length, in Boulengerochromis microlepis. Inhabits subtropical and temperate nearshore waters; often solitary, demersal over reef substrates (Ref. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic (off Europe and Mediterranean) and Indo-West Pacific (including New Zealand). Elongate pelvic fins, inserted before or behind pectoral fin base; with 1 spine and 5 soft rays 5. No pharyngeal sacs. Practically all genera and more than half of the species have been kept in aquaria at some time. Marine (often brackish); some in freshwater. Creediidae - (Sandburrowers) Higher level names include bujurqui (Peru, most cichlids), acará (Brazil, most cichlids), mochoroca (Venezuela), mojarra (Ecuador, Colombia, throughout Central America), krobia (Surinam), prapra (French Guiana). Owstoniines are less elongate, only 27-33 vertebrae and 19-26 dorsal-fin soft rays, with dorsal and anal fins not membraneously attached to the caudal fin (Ref. Caudal fin rounded, truncate or forked. Ventral margins of the opercles overlapping below the isthmus, fimbriae on the ventral margins of the interopercles; presence of bony fimbriae extending from the ventral margin of the interopercle and posterodorsal margin of the opercle; lateral line strongly arched anteriad and approaching the dorsal midline (Ref. 50 cm) lutjanoid fishes; eye moderately large, its diameter longer than snout length. Astronotus species, and to some extent Cichla species are subject to aquaculture in Brazil. Spawning takes place in open water near the surface. Members of Cepolinae are notably elongate, 48-79 total vertebrae and 55-90 total dorsal-fin soft rays, with the terminal dorsal- and anal-fin soft rays attached to the caudal fin by a membrane (Ref. On the Pacific slope, cichlids are found in a succession of permanent rivers south to the Río Jequetepeque or perhaps even to slightly south of Lima, Peru. The geographical distribution includes freshwaters of Africa (900 valid species, estimated more than 1300 species), the Jordan Valley in the Middle East (four species), Iran (one species), southern India and Sri Lanka (3 species, also in brackish water), Madagascar (17 valid species, some also in brackish water), Cuba and Hispaniola (4 valid species, some in brackish water), North America and isthmian Central America (95 valid species), and South America (290 valid species ) (Kullander, 1998, updated). Suggested new common name for this family in a coming ref. Adults with the lower 4-7 pectoral rays usually thickened, elongated, and free. Rounded caudal fin. Distribution: marine habitats in southern Australia, New Zealand, and southern South America. The northernmost species are Herichthys cyanoguttatus from the lower Rio Grande drainage in Texas, USA, on the Atlantic coast, and ‘Cichlasoma beani’, which reaches north to the Río Yaquí on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Most Neotropical cichlids occupy lentic habitats within rivers and streams; but there is also a number of moderately to strongly adapted rheophilic species. Pelagic spawners. Scales absent, except small cycloid scales present in Cryptacanthodes giganteus. 39189). Vomerine teeth present; palatine teeth present in all except Cryptacanthodes aleutensis. Maximum length 20 cm; most species below 10 cm. A cordlike ligament stretches from ceratohyal to dentary symphasis. Adults with the lower 4-7 pectoral rays usually thickened, elongated, and free. One short spine on anal fin; soft rays about 26. Banjosidae - (Banjofishes) Dorsal fin single, continuous or almost separate; spines 14-22; soft rays 19-39. Some with the distal portion of the median-fin spines unossified (Ref. Elongate body; lower jaw protruding. All have been assigned to Datnioides, now the genus type for the family. Distribution: tropical western and eastern Atlantic, Indian and Pacific (mainly Indo-Pacific). Live specimens with exceedingly beautiful colors. Dactyloscopidae - (Sand stargazers) Teeth present on vomer and palatine. Ventral margins of the opercles overlapping below the isthmus, fimbriae on the ventral margins of the interopercles; presence of bony fimbriae extending from the ventral margin of the interopercle and posterodorsal margin of the opercle; lateral line strongly arched anteriad and approaching the dorsal midline (Ref. Snout fleshy and jutting beyond lower jaw. Most Neotropical Cichlidae are moderately to strongly sex dimorphic, and breed pairwise. 94100). The cichlids are the most species-rich non-Ostariophysan fish family in freshwaters world-wide, and one of the major vertebrate families, with at least 1300 species and with estimates approaching 1900 species (Kullander, 1998). Subocular shelf absent. Cephalic mechanosensory canals not opening to the outside. Live specimens with exceedingly beautiful colors. About 16 cm maximum length; most much smaller. 94100). The caudal fin is slightly forked. 9847). Have many features in common with the scorpaenids. Distribution: cold-temperate north Pacific and northwest Atlantic. Oceanic. Cichla, large Crenicichla species, Petenia, Parachromis, Caquetaia, Astronotus, and Acaronia, feed on fishes and large invertebrates. - a genus change for the other Datnioididae species that have been assigned to Coius but are not Anabantidae. Feed on small crustaceans and fishes. Vomerine teeth present. Species usually small and very colorful; inhabits rocks and corals. 94114). Have many features in common with the scorpaenids. Uses: Fusiliers are important food fishes and are also used as bait in tuna fisheries. Snout fleshy and jutting beyond lower jaw. Forehead steep and high in adult males. The northernmost species are Herichthys cyanoguttatus from the lower Rio Grande drainage in Texas, USA, on the Atlantic coast, and ‘Cichlasoma beani’, which reaches north to the Río Yaquí on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Distribution: lowlands of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mahanadi basins, in Nepal, India, and Bangladesh; and, Irrawaddy in Myanmar and China (Dario species). following Ref. Pectoral fins very small. Postcleithra 2. Usually with fringes on lips. Forehead steep and high in adult males. Slender fishes with compressed head and body. Distribution: tropical Africa (three species) and southern Asia. Coius cobojius the type species of Coius has been assigned to Anabas. Head profile steep and nearly straight. The spinous dorsal with 10-12 slender spines; soft dorsal with 14-18 soft rays. Chiefly tropical and subtropical marine; rare in fresh- and brackish water. The majority of the Neotropical cichlids feed on a variety of invertebrates and some plant matter, and specializations among those species remain little investigated. 7463). Species flocks are reported from Africa. Body scales cycloid. - a genus change for the other Datnioididae species that have been assigned to Coius but are not Anabantidae. Feeds on crustaceans and other invertebrates. Distribution: marine habitats in southern Australia, New Zealand, and southern South America. Extending over length of body in some ; anterior dorsal fin extending over length of body some... Before or behind pectoral fin base ; with or without spots ; or uniformly pink or.... ( Wrymouths ) Distribution: marine habitats in southern Australia a thick layer of mucus eyes set high to.... 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