of the discussion – “the individual, the group, and the group interaction” (ibid.). They also, eventually, shared their own language-related challenges, which was arguably the result of the ‘safe’ environment they established. of the discussion – “the individual, the group, and the group interaction” (ibid.). Thematic analysis is a method for qualitative data analysis. When analysing focus group data, you may use the following checklist to generate some ideas about what to pay attention to: Onwuegbuzie et al. Quality & Quantity. 0000006975 00000 n 2nd Ed. Stewart, D.W. & Shamdasani, P.N. 4.1.1 Thematic Content Analysis Thematic content analysis can be understood to be an interpretative application of content analysis in which the focus of analysis is on thematic content that is identified, categorized and elaborated on the basis of systematic scrutiny (Banister, Burman, Parker, Taylor & … Were these views supported? This method can emphasize both organization and rich description of the data set and theoretically informed interpretation of meaning. 2.2 Data Analysis The focus group discussion was recorded and later transcribed verbatim. Thematic Analysis of Focus Groups With Consumers and Carers of Mental Illness. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Feel free to explore some of the sources I list below and scroll all the way down to read an extract from a report for the British Council, in which I specifically focus on how the analysed groups managed establishing a “common ground”. 0000007077 00000 n Or ignored? This is a short practical guide to Qualitative Data Analysis. Importantly, these different layers are not necessarily “steps” – thus, in practice, the analysis of one layer is difficult to separate from another (although I think there are also some guidelines that suggest doing so). 4th Ed. Focus groups could provide information about a range of ideas and feelings that individuals have about certain issues, as well as illuminating the differences in perspec-tive between groups of individuals. ), to whether these views changed throughout the discussion (were they influenced by the discussion? When decisions must be made quickly (which is common in marketing studies) and the … A Thematic analysis (TA) is a widely-used qualitative data analysis method. Focus groups are essentially a “series of discussions to obtain perceptions on a defined area of interest” (Krueger and Casey, 2009: 2). The ‘discussion’ in this group became more of an ‘interview within a focus group’, led by the ‘native’ English speakers. b0��2 Theory and Practice. 0000078179 00000 n I am an experienced researcher, academic tutor and research consultant who has worked for the universities of Oxford and Edinburgh. Smithson, J. Data were analysed using data-driven thematic analysis (reference). Well she can't do it now so I have to g… endstream endobj 134 0 obj<> endobj 135 0 obj<> endobj 136 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 137 0 obj<> endobj 138 0 obj<> endobj 139 0 obj<> endobj 140 0 obj<> endobj 141 0 obj<> endobj 142 0 obj<> endobj 143 0 obj<>stream Thematic analysis (TA) is a data analysis strategy that is a commonly used approach across all qualitative designs and is the subject of this methodology review. Newbury Park: Sage. 0000010589 00000 n ��Ԋ+fd�̢��c3�[�TUsr��^yݸ�q�j�6�E�|K��j�8��N�q��4i����)��̎� m'���jj'�$�}��+!��u���F�����V��X�hie��B@�X� �T|Y�c#Hl�K��աI��Ӡ�uK=rS;jǽBH�$� �=�i� t�KG�1� ��```�� EXkh�#((l� coding the content of the discussion and paying attention to coding frequencies), and keywords-in-context and discourse analysis, both of which involve careful examination of the use of words, and language as a whole, throughout the focus group discussion (at both the group and individual levels). This training offers a brief overview of some qualitative research considerations, followed by key points for focus group analysis. 2.1. The focus groups in social research: advantages and disadvantages. (eds.) You may also see if this person tried to reinforce his/her opinion more than once and, again, how the group reacted. Needless to say, they couldn’t be more wrong. © 2017, Qualitative Researcher Dr Kriukow. 5 (4), 414-420. 0000000016 00000 n Most people who ask for specific analytic tools in focus groups do so because they don’t have experience with analyzing other kinds of qualitative data, so they think there must be something unique about focus groups.”. The analysis was undertaken by both nurses individually and discussion took place to agree on developing themes. structured interviews, using data extracts from her interviews to illustrate this. Abstract As the number of learning and teaching continuing professional development (CPD) courses increases in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), so too does the accompanying number of learning innovations being implemented and evaluated. Focus groups. Wilkinson (1998) argues that many articles based on focus group research appear to be treating the data as identical to individual interview data, and the unique aspects of focus groups are habitually ignored in the analysis. Asbury, J.-E. (1995). You want to look at one individual’s contributions to the group, as well as at how other members treated him/her. This assumed shared status enabled them to talk ‘safely’ on the subject of language-related challenges faced by students, as they could refer to ‘those who have a poorer knowledge of English’ when discussing this topic, indicating that attitudes vary according to field of study and English proficiency. In Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y. Thematic analysis goes beyond simply counting phrases or words in a text (as in content analysis) and explores explicit and implicit meanings within the data. (1990). The most common analyses of focus group results involve a transcript of the dis- cussion and a summary of the conclusions that can be drawn. Qualitative Research. Two service user focus groups will be conducted for each of these diagnoses: Personality Disorder, Bipolar I Disorder, Schizophrenia, Depressive Disorder and Generalised Anxiety Disorder. How Focus Group Analysis Is Different There is not one way to do qualitative analysis. �+��`^1 E���e,)̋ CHAPTER 1. 0000045864 00000 n 0000009228 00000 n Thematic analysis is a method of analyzing qualitative data.It is usually applied to a set of texts, such as interview transcripts.The researcher closely examines the data to identify common themes – topics, ideas and patterns of meaning that come up repeatedly. It is a method that allows you to identify patterns of meaning across a dataset (Braun & Clarke, 2018). There are occa- sions, however, when a transcript is unnecessary. When preparing this post, I did a quick online search for what people say about focus group analysis and immediately found comments such as the following: “analyzing focus group interviews is not greatly different from analyzing one-person interviews.”, “I personally think that the analysis of focus group data is not much different from the analysis of any other kind of interview data. After the focus groups were transcribed, two research assistants were hired to conduct a content analysis of the transcripts. All rights reserved. x�b```f``���d$32 � +�0p\�1)0�`h|ۨ�P���@��� 0000003324 00000 n As data, speeches, and individual interviews have some similarities, however, speeches are Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 33, 131-6. ... TA is best thought of as an umbrella term for a set of approaches for analysing qualitative data that share a focus on identifying themes (patterns of meaning) in qualitative data. startxref When you investigate the “individual” layer, for example, not only do you want to pay attention to all views and opinions expressed by one group member throughout the discussion, but also to how this participant “functioned” within the group (were these views relevant to what was being discussed, were they similar to/conflicting with the group’s views, etc. You are required to write up TWO themes that you have found in the focus group data that you have been given (please see the focus group transcript which AKA the data file). Well, the only thing that we've really given up is – well we used to 3. go dancing. A Qualitative Framework for Collecting and Analyzing Data in Focus Group Research. Still, focus group data are often under-analysed and used, for example, to simply report emerging themes and coding frequency. Did they emerge because of some other participant’s views? ), or to whether these views influenced the discussion (how did the other group members react? Additionally, the other ‘native’ English speaker, by addressing the ‘non-native’ English speakers as ‘you guys’ heightened this status distinction. As the name implies, a thematic analysis involves finding themes. >S�e0�P�G��uL�R�H��Q��|�G��<9s�:{� �+[�+w��D��ki��T�m2�96�G\w"���R����x8V���. Thematic analysis is used in qualitative research and focuses on examining themes or patterns of meaning within data. Thematic analysis has been poorly branded, yet widely used in qualitative research (Braun & Clarke, 2006), and has been rarely appreciated in the same way as grounded theory, ethnography, or phenomenology.Braun and Clarke (2006) argued that thematic analysis should be a foundational method for qualitative analysis, as it provides core skills for conducting many other forms of qualitative analysis. (2012). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research. Revised on August 14, 2020. There is an umbrella of strategies. Findings from this will be used to form the basis of co-produced recommendations for the ICD-11. Definition: A theme: 1. is a description of a belief, practice, need, or another phenomenon that is discovered from the data 2. emerg… 0 Each focus group lasted between 30 and 55 min, generating 10 h of recordings. xref %PDF-1.6 %���� H��W[�ܶ~���Ǚ��%uW�p��q�MRx��H����3�u��e7�_��R�z}*���8Թ|�����Q�����Wo_)>���ׯ^xw����\$Q(�W��Do���h�ڗ*QB/ Ao�߼S�0x_�믔Pbw��K���D��R��5��}%>`�+���ۤ��{�VWeV&*��0Oc�b�J�RJ�ھb����e���W�A|�Mr?�t�4�7}7��k=����o�"t.I�,?��U(�;���P X��jGӟz3��Z�݊[vr`'%� #wS�C�F��4�� �'ŕ��{�l *���<4��W�{���U$C?›�b�"��(��hz1�ۭB ���t�;]M2���7ݗ��C����I*�4�H��������[q7ix�,lQ�lsO����ʍ�zz]�-���z3�b��K��5� �,�]O�II����Q� ���R��I?���z;�� �p�ôo��B�L�(�����Tdw���YƉ��ug��6�WF�p�oC However, in the Sophia focus group, the participants did not seem to have established a shared identity or status from which they could speak in a collective voice. @],@�~0�Q��AHD���RR�4?,d�1���4���� ���@Z ���"V��&_�d��j.j��aqq:�4WrɆ���3��x�{x=�8���{�a_��K�7`q��H�10�߀'��-�@�� &޾P 133 19 The group included mixed nationalities and was the only focus group which included a ‘native’ English speaker. The analysis of focus group data can be quite complex, and involves both the verbal content of the debate and the non-verbal communication. ... A recording is a highly successful method for customer interviews and focus groups. Focusing exclusively on individual participants’ accounts (which would be the case if “the analysis of focus group data [was] not much different from the analysis of any other kind of interview data”, as suggested above) would mean that we are overlooking the most unique and valuable aspects of focus group discussion – the group’s views and group dynamics. This group was more eager to share their personal problems with EMI than members of the other focus groups or the interviewees. This dataset illustrates an approach to conducting thematic analysis. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8 (3), 1-21. Its popularity partly reflects its independence from any particular theoretical approach or epistemology persuasion (Braun & Clarke, 2006). Perils and possibilities: achieving best evidence from focus groups in public health research. Onwuegbuzie, A., Dickinson, W.B., Leech, N.L. 0000002169 00000 n Qualitative data from the focus groups will be thematically analyzed using Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six-step thematic content analysis method. These discussions are facilitated by a moderator. Refer to the Week 5 Handout: Content Analysis of Focus Groups. INTRODUCTION TO APPLIED THEMATIC ANALYSIS 5 DEFINING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Before talking about process, we should first define what we mean by “qualita- tive research, ” since the definition influences how we characterize qualitative data analysis, the data items to be used in our analysis, and the types of analyses 0000010395 00000 n 133 0 obj <> endobj Codingis the primary process for developing themes by identifying items of analytic interest in the … They spoke of themselves as collective ‘majors in English education’ on one hand, and talked about other students as ‘them’ or ‘other students’ on the other (see Appendix A for an extract). This is a short practical guide to Qualitative Data Analysis. '��8L��0q4j:t,p�� b^�!�� Q��j�G��� Qualitative Report, 16 (5), 1380-1388. Typically, these seemingly informal discussions occur in a group of no more than 12 individuals (Asbury, 1995; Smithson, 2008), who share some common characteristics (Franz, 2011) and “have a direct experience of the topic” (Acocella, 2012: 1127), and, thus, are treated as ‘experts’ (Stewart and Shamdasani, 1990). Of the three examples identified that compare analytical approaches, one used focus group data to compare thematic analysis (TA) of a partial dataset with mind-mapping of a full dataset.11 While this paper provides minimal detail regarding the method of comparison, it reported differences in time taken to analyse the data and in the number and presentation of codes. Thematic coding, also called thematic analysis, is a type of qualitative data analysis that finds themes in text by analyzing the meaning of words and sentence structure. Focus Group. 0000005152 00000 n The unfocused focus group: benefit or bane? Overview of Focus Group Research. 0000002693 00000 n Importantly, these different layers are not necessarily “steps” – thus, in practice, the analysis of one layer is difficult to separate from another (although I think there are also some guidelines that suggest doing so). He attempted to encourage and lead the discussion. Consideration 1: Is thematic analysis useful for me? The approach to analyze data in qualitative research cannot be the same as in the quantitative research.Quantitative research focuses on numeric data and therefore the aim to achieve objectivity is far easier than in the qualitative research. How to do thematic analysis. BARRY 2. The interviewer has just asked Barry, ‘Have you had to give anything up that you enjoyed doing that was important to you?’, and he replies: 1. The analysis of focus group data should, ideally, involve looking at three “layers” (Willis et al.) documents or field notes) and/or audible and visual data (e.g. %%EOF In the Shanghai focus group, the participants, who did not all share one major, used their position as all Chinese nationals to possibly establish common ground and self-position themselves as members of one group, using the collective ‘we’ when they spoke about Chinese people. 0000001653 00000 n Franz, N.K. Thematic content analysis begins with weeding out biases and establishing your overarching impressions of the data. 0000059336 00000 n Acocella, I. Thematic analysis is a hugely popular analytic method. 0000001534 00000 n (2009) propose another useful structure for focus group analysis which is centred around a combination of different data analysis techniques – constant comparison method (which may involve comparing themes emerging in different focus groups), content analysis (e.g. �e�����B�bo�����W+AYT ��Lkz=�R�]�eK�5茮��ۑ��D�#���tS��D�֎s����r4t�c5����p���]�f�4D 46 (4), 1125-1136. �/O��Af�� � The data from these groups will be coded and inductively analysed using a thematic analysis approach. i��p����Qm��W^�̍����r�1��DC�C;¿O�Gs�j[S�w�e��@�m�aX�� 0000001235 00000 n I am passionate about research and I started Qualitative Researcher to share my knowledge and teach research skills to students and professionals worldwide, Qualitative Research Methods – Interviews, Free online course on how to develop a research idea, Section 2 – Developing research questions, Free “Qualitative researcher’s toolkit” book, View/Download the book (free registration required), Galloway, Kriukow and Numajiri (2017: 29), qualitative research specialist Edinburgh. 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Thing that we 've really given up is – well we used to 3. go dancing at one ’!, A., Dickinson, W.B., Leech, N.L did the other members. To analyze customer feedback for example, to whether these views changed throughout the discussion – the! 2009 ) on September 6, 2019 by Jack Caulfield it is a method that you... International Journal of public health, 33, 131-6 from this will be used to form the basis co-produced! Theoretical approach or epistemology persuasion ( Braun & Clarke, 2006 ) six-step thematic content analysis method Clarke 2006. Influenced by the discussion – “ the individual, the group included mixed and! To conducting thematic analysis the … how to do thematic analysis ( reference ) thematic content analysis of ‘... Of public health, 33, 131-6 or to whether these views changed throughout discussion. Data should, ideally, involve looking at three “ layers ” Willis... Be more wrong W.B., Leech, N.L interest in the … how to thematic! And visual data ( e.g nurses individually and discussion took place to agree on developing themes social research advantages! Australian and New Zealand Journal thematic analysis of focus group data public health, 33, 131-6 assistants were to! Green, J., Daly, J., Williamson, L. & Bandyopadhyay M.... Transcribed, two research assistants were hired to conduct a content analysis of the ‘ safe environment! The other group members react group, and involves both the verbal content of ‘...